A DEMONOLOGY OF TECHNOCAPITALISM
To begin, I must start with a warning. With the same reluctance that Paul Tillich injected into his demonology, I echo: “It is an extraordinary dilemma: to speak of the demonic will bring frenzy or emptiness or both – the demon will not leave his exposure unavenged… Never the less, these dangers will not deter us from our task.” I am compelled to work a similar path & continue the unearthing of the demonic mechanism. This text traces the movements of forces that operate above & below human awareness, only revealing a fraction of their depths on the edges of perception.
In 1521, The Edict of Worms declared Martin Luther a “notorious heretic.” This edict was delivered well after Martin Luther’s 95 theses, which began the process of the Protestant Reformation. One of Luther’s primary points of theological conviction was in critiquing the perversion of indulgences. Within the Catholic church, the practice of seeking “remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the action of the Church which, as the minister of redemption, dispenses & applies with authority the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ & all of the saints.” While those seeking indulgences typically had to perform some ritualize sacrifice or action to receive forgiveness, this process began to change in the 15th century.
Indulgences became commercialized. This was one of the primary attacks from Luther – the commercialization of spiritual practice or ritual was a site of corruption or infection. In early documents, Luther wrote on economic practices, establishing himself as “a keen observer & analyst of the early practices of what later will be known as ‘capitalism’” & refers to it as “a demonic reality.” For Luther, economic relations were not outside the realm of religious consideration, but instead, they were contested sites of spiritual warfare. The convergence of the sacred & commodified, as seen through the exchange of indulgences, became a fracture in Luther’s reality & opened into his attack on the church. In the Smalcald Articles, Luther goes as far as calling the pope the antichrist. Here, the subtle tendrils of capitalism are already named alongside the antichrist, & through the capital-antichrist convergence, the demonic realm becomes visible, leaving the depths to infect the surface. This fracturing is a site of the demonic – not necessarily a site of evil, but as Paul Tillich might say, it is a site of tension.
Alongside the fragmentation of the church, there was the simultaneous rise of capitalism – both of which are facilitated by the rise of printing press. Communication technology, Protestant Christianity & Capitalism are all tied this temporal site – the rat king of modernity. They pull across time, towards their own ends, which pulls the knot tighter & increases tension, further solidifying their entwinement. Each of these vectors spans out, developing in complexity & opening out into (& becoming) the demonic realm. And yet the knot remains, a knot tied together gathering in tension, compression, & destructive force. The knot itself also needs to be addressed. It might also make sense to think of the knot itself as an infra-capitalism, operating below the surface & within everything. It is here that the demonic capital (or capital-antichrist) is exposed.
Economic Capitalism & Economic Protestantism
The initial splitting of the church unravelled the central, organizing structure of social life. These mechanisms of fragmentation continued to accelerate & compress temporal developments, slowly revealing more of the demonic tendencies drifting nearer to the human interface. While capital is often considered to be a secular social system that demystifies religion, many have also argued that it performs the same function as religion, replacing the organizing role that religion once filled, & retains similar structural formations. Even so, it marks a transition towards an emptying out of the spiritual within religious forms. The disenchantment & secularization can be described through these 3 elements:
- Declining relevance of religious knowledge in the public space
- Decline of church affiliation & practiced religiosity in social life
- Transformation of faith from a natural custom into a matter of individual choice.
Each of these elements moves towards a dissipation of the specificity of religiosity in favour of more generic options of thought & feeling. The complexity of religious practice is unravelled through abandonment & the conversion from custom to choice. The presence of the spirit has left & all that remains is buildings with beautiful stained glass & vacant pews.
With this evacuation of the spirits, there is still a continuation of practices within capitalism that invoke the more mysterious practices, beyond flat or empty religiosity. There are rituals, core beliefs & doctrines, new dogma, & constructions positioned as universal truths. But there are also mystical & ephemeral elements that require deep faith-driven structures. The fragmentation of the Christian church became a splintering that allowed for new power structures & new forms of meaning to coalesce. Commodities, which were already seeping into the religious sphere, already had transcendent aspects embedded in their implementation. These fault lines were traces of the division, but they also led to serious doubts in the institutional structure of the church, & the system of beliefs.
Charting the time from the reformation to the present is marked by continual fragmentation & division, & a slow receding of the church from the central position of cultural, political, & economic change. The secularization discussed above does capture the decline in the church in the west, but it is important to realize that “religions are not disappearing from the social agenda in the era of mature capitalism; on the contrary, religious experience remains a core element of social reality, albeit with a new meaning.” Walter Benjamin further elaborates this new religious formation found within capitalism, emphasizing the extension into the more cult-driven aspects.
First, capitalism is a pure religious cult, perhaps the most extreme there ever was. Within it everything only has meaning in direct relation to the cult: it knows no special dogma, no theology. From this stand-point, utilitarianism gains its religious colouring. This concretization of the cult connects with a second characteristic of capitalism: the permanent duration of the cult… Third, this is a cult that engenders blame. Capitalism is presumably the first case of a blaming, rather than a repenting cult… Therein lies the historical enormity of capitalism: religion is no longer the reform of being, but rather its obliteration.
Capital is an eternal death cult, forming exclusive meaning that fails to operate beyond it. It is the annihilation of outside meaning & being – it subsumes everything, commodifying & reconfiguring within its networks of limitless fungibility. The absorption is deeply vampiric, taking away any hope for life, drained & converted to the religion of capitalism. The religious form can be seen as a parasitic development, feeding off Christianity until the two are indistinguishable: “Capitalism itself developed parasitically on Christianity in the West–not in Calvinism alone, but also, as must be shown, in the remaining orthodox Christian movements – in such a way that, in the end, its history is essentially the history of its parasites, of capitalism.” The slippage into secularization is part of this conversion, part of the infective force of capitalism, moving in & inhabiting the religious form. In other words, the eruption of capitalism as a reanimation of the Christian church, a demonic possession.
The demonic character of capital is not just a theological remapping – it is something that reverberates across its definitions. Capital is described as monstrous, vampiric, parasitic, & destructive. Marx himself refers to capital as “a very mystical being.” It is already dripping with theological language, flowing beyond the space of the human. Going more explicitly towards the demonic, Nick Land’s conceptualization of capital extends beyond the economic framework, where it embodies “not an essence but a tendency.” It is an attack or invasion, “enveloping, dismantling, & circulating every subjective space,” slowing emerging from the depths, where it has been operating below the surface. The economic realm is only one face of capital, one glimpse of the demonic.
Technology & Dark Media
New forms of technology have also provided sites to engage the demonic. The ability to communicate in ways previously unimaginable are always mystical before they become mundane. They rupture the limits of contact & connection. This is seen quite clearly with the developments in print technology during the 15th century. Control of information & communication were irrevocably altered by the arrival of the printing press. Text documents could be reproduced rapidly & distributed easily. This technology was essential to the Protestant Reformation & continued to support the expansion of Christian ideas & modes of decentralization. Johannes Gutenberg wrote in 1455:
Let us break the seal which seals up the holy things & give wings to Truth in order that she may win every soul that comes into the world by her word, no longer written at great expense by hands easily palsied, but multiplied like the wind by an untiring machine.
Reproducing texts no longer required individual scribes, cutting down the time to copy & circulate the texts. At this time, Luther also translated the bible into the German language, allowing common people to engage with the sacred text. The arrival of this machine became completely intertwined with the spread & fracturing of Christianity, the physical text began to replace the centralized structures & unravelled the concentration of spiritual power. In Gil Anidjar’s “Of Globalatinology,” he talks about the structure of Christianity being indistinguishable with media, as “the becoming media of the planet, its Christianization.” These trends continued over the decades, with Christianity always remaining close to evolving technology, always circulating alongside machinic reproduction.
Within the networked technoscape of the current moment, time & space have started to compress. The accelerated rate of information across time & space has been made possible through new forms of communication & computation technology. The ubiquity of smart phones, personal computers, e-readers, tablets, etc. have placed humans in a state of constant mediation. Now “everything everywhere is always available & connected. What was previously inaccessible – due to the contingencies of space or time or corporeality – is rendered accessible via media & the process of mediation.”
Through technological mediation, we can see an isomorphic relation with religion & demonology. Creating impossible points of communication, contact, & knowledge through layered forms of mediation & through mediums. While these technologies are not usually aligned with any sort of divinity, they definitely call forth the inhuman or nonhuman. Eugene Thacker even addresses this slippage directly when he says, “If there is a lesson to be learned from Scholastic demonology or medieval mysticism, it is that our ideas of media & mediation are, perhaps, all-too-human.” It is a call for a further embrace of the unknown that extends beyond the human realm: “The function of media is no longer to render the inaccessible accessible, or to connect what is separated. Instead, media reveal inaccessibility in & of itself – they make accessible the inaccessible – in its inaccessibility.” Experiencing the ‘inaccessible’ as inaccessible is tied to mystical experience. Through new technology, there is a possibility for a return to religious expression that reintroduces the strangeness & possible encounter with the nonhuman. Technology functions as an opportunity for the body to interface with that which lies beyond.
Capital, Biotech, & the Body
Technology also allows for capital to move into the space of the body, to artificially reproduce bodily experience from within. Capital’s embrace of the life-process is interesting to think about when considering the way in which capital forms itself as an artificial life process. This can be seen in the processes of reproduction & proliferation, endless inventiveness & obsession with the new. The evolutionary possibilities within capital are modelled across the natural world. Even more specifically, we can see this affinity with the life-process through biotechnology & digital implants. Capitalism lives within the body. The alignment of biological research with capital & the state alters the way we understand “life itself.” In Eugene Thacker’s construction of a political economy of biomaterial, he moves from a model of human life that is built on scarcity to one that is built on excess: “abundance, not scarcity, is the rule of life.” By examining DNA, specifically junk DNA, as the “stuff of life,” which is largely understood in these terms, it becomes clear that the material of life is built on a certain type of excess. The abundance, however, is not truly a form of excess within the capitalist schema; it can & often is reincorporated. This can be seen through the informatics lens, as well. Digital & material excess is verging on impossibility, everything is reabsorbed within capital. While, as Thacker mentions, Bataille sees this alternate reading as a way to resist capital, within the framework of bioinformatics & biotechnology, even the excessive/unwieldy body can become knowable & documentable, processed as information. When the body is split open, blood & guts become capital.
The Demonic Mechanism & Capital-Antichrist
The convergence of the mystical & technological as tendencies of capital can be seen through Tillich’s complex formulation of the demonic. As Tillich says, “the technique of capitalism cannot be isolated from the demonic.”
The demonic “is the form destroying eruption of the creative basis of things”. It is an entropic mechanism, a chaos machine that feeds on the new, on acts of creation. Often, this leads towards an understanding of the demonic as evil & opposed to forms of holiness; however, this is short-sighted. For Tillich, the demonic is not opposed to the holy, but constitutive of holiness: “the holy encompasses both the divine & the demonic.” The Demonic could be understood as anti-divine, but it remains part of the machinic function of holiness, something often associated with divinity. This creates a mechanism of contradiction, acting through the processes of de- & reterritorialization. It works within the larger structure, not as something that can be eliminated or destroyed. Tillich writes,
The demonic, however, cannot be combated with violence. According to the dialectic of the demonic, that will mean getting caught in the demonic’s own web & will simply lead to new forms of demonism.
It is a productive process. The initial understanding of the demonic as a mode of destruction obscures the creative process embedded within. There is potential for endless reproduction through the demonic form. To be total destruction, would be an annihilation of form & therefore aligned with absolute negativity, but, for Tillich, “The demonic is not a total negativity, & it does not have the power to exist when left on its own, independent of the creative force of good.” It has the appearance of an “ingenious-productive power” alongside the destructive impulse, reconfiguring it as a force of creative-destruction, a chaos machine. This creative destructive force throws us back into the realm of capitalism. In the Grundrisse, Marx writes, of creative destruction as “the violent destruction of capital not by relations external to it, but rather as a condition of its self-preservation.” These forces are embedded in the core of the process of capitalism. Here, the overlap between the mechanisms or tendencies of demonism & capitalism converge in total. Tillich also identifies nationalism as a form of the demonic, but even here, it merges with the force of capitalism. He writes that during World War I, “these leaders did not display some kind of personal demonic, but rather manifested the entire demonic form of the capitalism they represented.” Here, Tillich seems to be creeping towards Land’s understanding of capitalism as a force that surpasses other demonic forms, even embodying the entirety of the demonic itself.
Nick Land’s account of Capitalism is not a being or fixed system, but, as stated earlier, “a tendency, the formula of which is decoding, or market-driven immanentization, progressively subordinating social reproduction to techno-commercial replication.” It consists of mechanisms & loops, flows & disruptions. Thinking of capitalism as an object, a stable system, an economic formation, or as an evil entity fails to define the elements that operate without consideration of humanity, outside an anthropic model. One of the more visible tendencies/processes named as the demonic form of capitalism is a positive feedback loop. Land writes,
Positive feedback is the elementary diagram for self-regenerating circuitry, cumulative interaction, auto-catalysis, self-reinforcing processes, escalation, schismogenesis, self-organization, compressive series, deuterolearning, chain-reaction, vicious circles, & cybergenics. Such processes resist historical intelligibility, since they obsolesce every possible analogue for anticipated change. The future of runaway processes derides all precedent, even when deploying it as camouflage, & seeming to unfold within its parameters.
Even here, demonic capital is on the cusp of the illegible, operating above & below the range we are trapped within.
It is no longer a matter of “thinking about,” but rather of observing an effective, alien intelligence in the process of making itself real, then it is also a matter of participating in such a way as to continually intensify & accelerate this process.
These points of recognition & “anthropological characteristics” are simply “a symptom of underdevelopment…something for it to overcome: a problem, drag.” The actual economic structure itself & engagement with humanity is part of the problem for the demonic capital. And this engagement, as well as the process, is deeply embedded in the definition of the human. Through this shedding of the anthropological characteristics, the eventual process works towards liquidating & dismantling the very structures that articulate human subjectivity. The points of contact with the human are both external & internal. Capitalism creates relations between & within. The eventual escape, or exorcism, would obliterate the human: “nothing human makes it out of the near future.” All that remains is various forms of the inhuman.
In the introduction to Jean-François Lyotard’s book, The Inhuman, he describes two different varieties of the inhuman. The first is one that is manufactured through the dehumanizing forces of technology. By working alongside, being processed through, & integrating technology into all aspects of life, the concept of human is degraded, dehumanized, by the machinic inhuman. However, this understanding of the inhuman begins to unravel within Lyotard. He goes on to say, “Any material system is technological if it filters information useful to its survival, if it memorizes & processes that information & makes inferences based on the regulating effect of behaviour, that is, if it intervenes on & impacts its environment so as to assure its perpetuation at least. A human being isn’t different in nature from an object of this type.” This places the concept of the human within the technological realm. It becomes defined through technologies. This first form of the inhuman is actually defined in the same space as the human, both concepts formed through lack. Lyotard’s notion of the technological as a construction which names the human is really helpful in think through the ways that the human has shifted. Perhaps the terror directed towards the abstract notion of the technological is misguided. This technological is also within each of us & a continual interface in which is participate in the world. This alignment between humans & technology undoes or reconfigures the way we think of the division between the human & inhuman. The second form, which I find far more helpful, is that which extends beyond the human, which has been excluded from the concept. It is the excess that is experienced by pushing through. This is the positivist reading from Lyotard. Here, we can begin to think about futurity & movement through the present moment.
For Nick Land, the inhuman is not only constructed through exterior forces, but also can be found within, through thinking. He writes, “The high road to thinking no longer passes through a deepening of human cognition, but rather through a becoming inhuman of cognition, a migration of cognition out into the emerging planetary technosentience reservoir, into ‘dehumanized landscapes… emptied spaces’! where human culture will be dissolved.” What if we have already lost this notion of the human that is constructed against mass communication technologies? How might we begin to rethink notions of subjectivity beyond the human? How might we even displace concepts of the human & subjectivity all together? These questions tend towards the antihumanist & even inhuman, which can be seen as a new form of terror, but I think there is something quite liberating, dwelling within this line of interrogation. It’s possible that this line of thinking could actually reveal the terror already lurking within the concept of the human. By opening our definitions, through the demonic & technomystical, there is a possibility of traces out these processes & examining the poetic resonance with the actual. Due to the inability to perceive & conceptualize the processes that extend beyond the anthropic, the poetic is our only pathway in. How else do we speak of that which escapes?
It is capital-antichrist, the destructive creator of artificial life & new realities. Capital-antichrist (or the demonic capital) “emerges from the ground of the form itself, whether the form be organic or spiritual.” The demonic core seeks the infinite abyss, the plane of endless emergence & eternal dwelling, “the depth of things, which is the ground of their being, is also their abyss – that is, the depth must be inexhaustible.” Even as it infects everything, the demonic form also threatens to obliterate reality, it is “overarching manifestation of anti-reality, embracing the life-process & uniting it to the powers of the demonic.” – This is echoed in the above material around biotechnology. The manifestation of an anti-reality might be better understood as the dismantling of the temporal & spatial constraints placed upon reality. It is a “demonic distortion,” released through the “desire for infinity” or the annihilation of temporal fixity. This is not done by moving towards the infinite, but by “enclos[ing] the infinite in the finite.” The elements that remain outside of time are paradoxically willed towards containment, impossibly bringing that which exceeds time into time. However, through the intensity of the process, the demonic resists temporal fixity & “attempts to establish itself as unconditional.”
Meshwork & Spatial Annihilation
The demonic mechanism, working towards the unconditional, also operates outside the constraint of rigid, fixed constructions. The demonic forms itself within the meshwork.
Mesh makes itself out of the spaces beneath & between the net, & in the biotechnic intervals between net-components. Mesh necessarily – but coincidentally – assembles a fully connective system whenever it emerges. Any two mesh-pauses always interlink. Mesh consists of feral-noise in the divisional signal-fabric, arranging a set of demonic interzones in wormholespace, as cyberspace-utopia dissolves into Pandemonium
The mesh is a subterranean becoming that takes hold as an interlocking of the ground-of-being & abyssal void. It always extends, expands, & incorporates. It is much like a root network or catacombs – circulating below the surface, appearing as random noise, full connective chaos. However, these examples are far more fixed than the mesh. While the mesh has the same sort of connectivity, it is always changing & moving. The demonic mesh is fragmented & interconnected; it is a subterranean swarm. Land claims this fluidity wasn’t always present, but a consequence of the emergence & realization of the “the electrodigital info sphere” which “first integrat[ed] into a Godlike unitary being, a techno realized omniscient personality & later, when it changed, fragmenting into demons.” It is always coming into being as it dissolves. The creative-destructive impulse is held in tension, on the edge of consolidation & fragmentation, “the interference between the sacred & the profane, the unknown & knowing, is in its sacred sense a gateway opening onto death, & in its profane sense a hesitation: interruption as the edge of time or as a delay within time, death as the outside or as the deferred, the threshold of death as a brink or as a moment.” It is a site of death or delay. For Land, & Tillich, the demonic is a temporal mechanism – a desire for infinity or temporal annihilation.
In their scattered documents, the CCRU have a rare document for embracing the demonic core found within capitalism, Protestantism, & techno-communication. Reverend Martin Bergmann’s 1998 Easter sermon works towards a pathway out. He writes, “do not seek out redemption. Seek that which will allow you to escape the Time of Creation & its Prison.” The escape is only through the “the reality of Utter Nothingness which is the true God.” Bergmann goes on to describe the practices of ascetics & self-denial as programs for “the systematic dismantling of secular identity, ways of opening up the body to the Utter Nothingness.” Identity & individual human subjectivity need to fall away in an embrace of the nothingness or non-temporal, non-spatial existence. It is an escape or release, but one that involves sacrifice & deformation. The demonic mechanism also unravels human subjects in its will to infinity & attempt to unbind from the flesh, moving towards pure spirit or pure intellect. Looking at demonic capital in this sense draws forth questions of artificial intelligence or unbound intelligence.
As technocapitalism compresses time & space, accelerating the movement of information & intelligence, we are closing in on an unpredictable AI. As Elon Musk said in an interview at the MIT AeroAstro Centennial Symposium: “With artificial intelligence we’re summoning the demon. You know those stories where there’s the guy with the pentagram, & the holy water, & he’s like – Yeah, he’s sure he can control the demon? Doesn’t work out.” The summoning is the mechanism of the capital-antichrist. The meshwork is the zone of summons that is deeply woven into the life-process. The isomorphism of these mechanisms reveals them as simultaneous or interchangeable processes. Anyone who doesn’t see these as the same process has not seriously begun to ponder what capitalism is really doing. What it is in itself is only tactically connected to what it does for us – that is (in part), what it trades us for its self-escalation. Our phenomenology is its camouflage. We contemptuously mock the trash that it offers the masses, & then think we have understood something about capitalism, rather than about what capitalism has learnt to think of the apes it arose among.”
The escapes & escalations are for the capital-antichrist, through the demonic mechanism, & “Humanity recedes like a loathsome dream.” The embeddedness of these mechanisms – within the body, within communication, within economic structures, etc. – allows for total infection & control. Land writes, “The forces of antichrist are emerging fanged & encouraged from their scorched rat-holes in the wake of monotheistic hegemony, without the slightest attachment to the paralytic tinkerings of deconstructive undecidability… The war has scarcely begun.” These forces have already seeped into everything. Here, the mystical realization of the interconnectivity & material entanglement reveals its darkness: the realization that there is no human escape.
To think of technocapital as the manifestations of a demonic tendency or demonic mechanism reveals the eeriness & unknown depths of summoning the capital-antichrist. It opens up the unseen world that is both above & below, within & without, inside & outside. It operates in ways that interface with the human OS, but also holds the possibility for elements that extend beyond our capacities. Conceptualizing technocapital as an intelligent force from beyond, demonic & unknown, insists on an unravelling of reality, a glimpse into the abyss. It is, as Tillich says, “necessarily & unconditionally demanded of us that we unmask the demonic, seeking & using every possible weapon of resistance, but the results are not certain.” The unmasking may sink into the destructive force, opening up the inhuman possibilities & escape routes for the capital-antichrist. However, it is also possible that the unmasking will spiral into exorcism, disentangling the demonic & human – but even this may just be another escape for the demonic.
 Paul Tillich, “The Demonic.” Paul Tillich on Creativity, vol. 3. (Lanham: University Press of America, 1989) 63.
 Guillermo Hansen, “Money, Religion & Tyranny: God & the Demonic in Luther’s Antifragile Theology.” In Market & Margins: Lutheran Perspectives, edited by Association of Teaching Theologians & Wanda Deifelt, 31–68. (Minneapolis: Lutheran University Press, 2014) 33.
 Christoph Deutschmann, “Capitalism, Religion, & the Idea of the Demonic,” No. 12/2. MPIfG Discussion Paper (2012): 5.
 Deutschmann, “Capitalism, Religion, & the Idea of the Demonic,” 7.
 Walter Benjamin, Fragment from Capitalism as religion, trans. Chad Kautzer, 259-60.
 Karl Marx, Capital vol. III (New York: Vintage, 1981) 966.
 Nick Land, “Machinic Desire,” Fanged Noumena: Collected Writings 1987–2007 (Urbanomic/Sequence Press, 2018) 339.
 Erik Davis, Techgnosis: myth, magic & mysticism in the age of information (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2015) 269.
 Gil Anidjar, “Of Globalatinology,” Derrida Today 6.1 (2013): 17.
 Eugene Thacker, “Dark Media,” Excommunication: Three Inquiries in Media & Mediation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013) 89.
 Thacker, “Dark Media,” 89; 96.
 Thacker, The Global Genome Biotechnology, politics, & culture (Minneapolis: MIT Press, 2006) 130.
 Tillich, “The Demonic,” 89.
 Tillich, Nicholas Alfred Rasetzki, & Elsa L. Talmey, The interpretation of history (London: C. Scribner’s sons, 1936) 85.
 Espen Dahl. “The Ambiguity of the Demonic in Paul Tillich’s View of Art.” Transcendence & Sensoriness: Perception, Revelation, & the Arts (BRILL, 2015) 490; 500.
 Marx, Grundrisse Foundations of the critique of political economy (London: Penguin UK, 2005) 750.
 Tillich, “The Demonic,” 89.
 Land, “Machinic Desire,” 330.
 Robin Mackay & Armen Avanessian, “Introduction,” #Accelerate (Falmouth: Urbanomic, 2014) 31-2.
 Land, “Meltdown,” 443.
 Jean-François Lyotard, The inhuman: Reflections on time (Stanford University Press, 1991) 12.
 Land, “Circuitries,” 293.
 Tillich, “The Demonic,” 66-7.
 Tillich, “The Demonic,” 67; 73; 68.
 Dahl, “The Ambiguity of the Demonic in Paul Tillich’s View of Art,” 494; 494.
 Bruno, “On Magic,” Causes, Principles, & Unity, 125-6; Land, “Occultures,” 559; Land, “After the Law,” 233.
 Land, “Circuitries,” 300.
 Land, “Shamanic Nietzsche,” 204-5.
 Tillich, “The Demonic,” 90.